Suan Sunandha Science and Technology Journal <p>The Suan Sunandha Science and Technology Journal (SSSTJ) is a double-blind peer-reviewed scientific journal published twice a year (January and July) by the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Submissions of manuscripts should be sent to the Editor of the SSSTJ by online system.The manuscript will be taken that all contributing authors attest that manuscripts and material submitted to the SSSTJ are original and have not been published or submitted elsewhere and the authors concede to the open-access distribution of the manuscript, including all content contained therein.</p> <div> <h3><strong>Open Access Journal – SSSTJ (An International Journal)</strong></h3> </div> <div> <p><strong>Editor-in-Chief:</strong> Assoc. Prof. Dr. Narong Sangwaranatee, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University (Thailand).</p> <p><strong>Open Access:</strong> meaning all content is freely accessible (without fees) online to everyone, everywhere. Journal publishes under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).</p> <p>SSSTJ has both online and printing versions.<br />ISSN 2351-0889 (Print)<br />e-ISSN 2539-5742 (Online)<br /><br />SSSTJ is an international, cross-disciplinary, scholarly and open access journal of science and technology. The focus is to publish papers on state-of–the-art science and technology.</p> <p><strong>Fast Publications:</strong> The published research manuscripts are peer-reviewed and a first decision provided to authors within 30-60 days after submission.</p> </div> <div> <h3>General Information</h3> <p>The Suan Sunandha Science and Technology Journal (SSSTJ) is a double-blind peer-reviewed (at least two reviewers) scientific journal published twice a year (January and July) by the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Submissions of manuscripts should be sent to the Editor of the SSSTJ by online system: The manuscript will be taken that all contributing authors attest that manuscripts and material submitted to the SSSTJ are original and have not been published or submitted elsewhere and the authors concede to the open-access distribution of the manuscript, including all content contained therein.</p> </div> <div> <h3>Aim and Scope</h3> <p>Suan Sunandha Science and Technology Journal (SSSTJ) is an international academic journal that gains foothold at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand and opens to scientific communications in Southeast Asia, Asia and worldwide. It aims to contribute significant articles in science and technology researches. Published papers are focus on state of the art science and technology. Committee of the journal and association will review submitted papers. The authors may include researchers, managers, operators, students, teachers and developers.<br /><br />Following areas are considered for publication:</p> <div class="panel-heading"> <strong>Areas of Publications</strong></div> <div class="list-group"><a class="list-group-item"> Biology (BI)</a><a class="list-group-item"> Biotechnology (BT)</a><a class="list-group-item"> Environmental Science and Technology (EN)</a><a class="list-group-item"> Food Science and Technology (FT)</a><a class="list-group-item"> Microbiology (MI)</a><a class="list-group-item"> Applied Science (AS)</a><a class="list-group-item"> Computer Science and Information Technology (CS)</a><a class="list-group-item"> Other related fields (OF)</a></div> <h3>Publication Frequency</h3> </div> <div> <p>Two issues per year as follows:<br />1<sup>st</sup> issue: January<br />2<sup>nd</sup> issue: July</p> </div> <div> <h3>Access and Publication Fees</h3> <p>The Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University Journal of Science and Technology (SSSTJ) are published by the Department of Science and Technology of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok (Thailand) on a non-profit basis, offering the following:</p> <ul> <li>All articles published open access (free of charge) will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read, download, copy and distribute</li> <li>No university library or individual reader have to pay a subscription fee or buy access to access the articles published in the journal</li> <li>Authors do not need to pay any article submission or processing charges</li> </ul> <h3>Reprints</h3> </div> <div> <p>Please contact <a href=""></a> for more information on how to get the reprints of journal.</p> </div> Department of Science and Technology of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University en-US Suan Sunandha Science and Technology Journal 2351-0889 Influence of Tinuvin 292 on Chlorinated Rubber Varnish/ Coating Properties under UV Radiation <p>This article presents the effect of Tinuvin 292 (a light stabilizer based on liquid hindered amine) on properties of chlorinated rubber varnish/coating under 100 UV-thermo-humidity complex cycles. The properties included relative hardness, adhesion, flexural strength, impact resistance, and gloss loss. The results showed that 2.5 weight percent (wt%) of Tinuvin 292 had much improved physical properties of varnish coating such as relative hardness, adhesion, flexural strength, impact resistance, and gloss loss. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) were used to evaluate the changes of aged coatings in comparison to the initial ones. FT-IR spectrums also showed that intensities of CH2 and C=O (ester) groups changed strongly or slightly depending on the appearance of Tinuvin 292. SEM images indicated that the surface of aged coating with Tinuvin 292 was smoother than coating without Tinuvin 292. TGA also expressed that thermal oxidation stability of chlorinated rubber varnish/ coating had been enhanced with 2.5 wt% of Tinuvin 292.</p> THANH Nguyen Trung Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 10 2 132 140 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.278 Impact of Exposure Status on the Diversity and Successional Pattern of Cadaverous Arthropods on Slaughtered Juvenile Pig (Sus scrofa Linn.) Carcasses in Wukari, Nigeria <p>Knowledge of successional colonization of cadaver is important in medico-legal studies especially with regards to postmortem interval (PMI) estimation. Paucity of data especially as it relates to juveniles has limited the appropriate application of this knowledge for the benefit of man. To bridge this knowledge gap, juvenile human cadaver was modeled using 2 slaughtered juvenile pigs – Sus scrofa Linn. (≈ 10 kg mean weight) at the study site. One pig was exposed to sunlight while the other shaded under a tree. Both pigs were protected from scavengers and allowed through the decay stages and sampling for adult arthropods continued till the dry-remain<br />stage of decomposition. Data collected were used to compute frequency of occurrence and relative abundance. Paleontological Statistical Tool (Past3) was used to compute diversity indices. Of the 2032 arthropods of 20 species, across 17 families retrieved, the exposed carcass attracted 44.1% comprising 16 species within 15 families while the shaded carcass attracted 14 species within 12 families. Over 50% species similarity on the contrasting carcasses was observed. Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Dermestidae, Histeridae and Formicidae made-up the dominant families sampled. While Musca domestica L. (Muscidae) and Anochetus sp. (Formicidae) were<br />exclusively dominant for the shaded carcass, Crematogaster sp. (Formicidae) was exclusively dominant for the exposed carcass. Both carcasses completed decomposition in 14 days but exhibited a shorter advanced-decay stage for the shaded carcass and shorter dry remain stage for the exposed carcass. We thus conclude that, there was little distinction in the diversity and succession pattern of the arthropods colonizing both carcasses (shaded and exposed).</p> Chukwu Alexander Timothy Emmanuel Okrikata Jummai Amos Tidi Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 10 2 141 150 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.473 Effect of Preparation Conditions on Crosslinking Behavior of Linseed Oil-Based Thermosetting Polymer <p>Bio-based materials have received more attention to replace materials from petroleum resources because of sustainability reason.&nbsp; Plant oil is one of the most interesting raw materials to produce thermosetting polymer.&nbsp; A crosslinking reaction between epoxidized linseed oil and vegetable oil-based crosslinkers is investigated in present study.&nbsp; Two types of crosslinker including fatty acid dimer and fatty acid trimer were reacted with epoxidized linseed oil.&nbsp; A rotational rheometer equipped with cone-and-plate geometry was used to monitor the progress of three-dimensional network formation. &nbsp;A curing phenomenon was illustrated by the increment in storage modulus of the reaction mixture.&nbsp; The trifunctional crosslinker was more effective than difunctional crosslinker for an uncatalyzed systems at the reaction temperature of 120 <sup>O</sup>C.&nbsp; When the crosslinking temperature of trimer-crosslinker system increased from 120 <sup>O</sup>C to 140 <sup>O</sup>C, the induction time for curing decreased around three times.&nbsp; The reaction between epoxidized oil and trimer acid was obviously accelerated by using 4-methyl amino pyridine as a catalyst. &nbsp;Increasing the catalyst content induced a monotonically reduction in induction time of curing process.&nbsp; The induction time of the reaction between epoxidized linseed oil and trimer acid with 2% catalyst at reaction temperature of 120 <sup>O</sup>C was only 18 minutes, which was significantly shorter than that of an uncatalyzed systems around seven times.</p> Piyapon Permpoontanalap Wanchai Lerdwijitjarud Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10 2 151 157 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.491 Investigation of some regular x-ray imaging parameters in suggestive radiography of four hospitals in Bangladesh <p>Analytic radiography is a normal image testing technique which has been utilized for quite a long time. It is recommended by specialists so they can identify any problem in patients' bodies without a cut. Thinking about its wide use, the principle objective of this investigation is to give a top notch picture by keeping the radiation portion as low as conceivable through identifying any variety in quality control (QC) boundaries. In this work, some standard quality control boundaries, for example, voltage exactness, time precision test, tube yield linearity, half value layer (HVL) of x-beam were measured. These quality control (QC) boundaries were estimated by a dosimeter keeping a distance of 100 cm from source. The voltage precision went from 0.31% to 4.67% and the time exactness test went from 0% to 2.29%. The consequences of this investigation show that all the QC boundaries are inside the acceptable level which guarantees the advancement of the low portion conveyed to the patients.</p> Sadeka Sultana Rubai Santunu Purohit Tanjim Siddiqua Md. Shakilur Rahman AKM Moinul Haque Meaze Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10 2 158 164 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.239 Spatial Distribution of Crimes Against Property: A Case Study in Nakhon Pathom Province <p>Crimes against property were correlated with the recession of the economy. According to the Royal Thai Police report, crimes against property continue to increase. The criminal statistics showed that the second-highest number of crimes against property was found in Nakhon Pathom Province. The purposes of this study were to 1) examine the pattern of crimes against property using Moran’s I, 2) investigate the spatial distribution of crimes against property using Getis-Ord Gi*, 3) find out the directional distribution of crimes against property using a standard deviational ellipse, and 4) explore the spatial relationship between crimes against property, land use, and population density. Secondary data on crime cases were collected from the Mueang Nakhon Pathom Police Station criminal report book between 2013 and 2018 and then converted to spatial data. The results of the study were as follows: 1) The pattern of the cases over 5 years was clustered; 2) the spatial distribution of cases revealed hotspot areas with a GiZscore greater than 1.65 over 5 years covering residential and village areas, city and town areas, commercial areas, entertainment venues, local education institutes, the boulevard, dark alleys, and deserted streets; 3) the directional distribution of the cases over 5 years was distributed to the west of the study area; and 4) urban and built-up land was discovered where most cases occurred. Overall, the crimes against property clustered around crowded residential areas and villages, dark alleys, and deserted streets. This study facilitates investigations, defense, and control of crimes against property.</p> Wichittra Phlicharoenphon Ornprapa Pummakarnchana Rober Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 10 2 165 175 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.434 Factors Affecting Oil Palm Productivity in Surat Thani Province <p>This project is a study of factors affecting oil palm productivity in Surat Thani Province. The objectives were to study the relationship between factors including oil palm prices in Surat Thani Province, the average number of hours of sunshine in Surat Thani, average temperatures in Surat Thani Province, the relative humidity in Surat Thani Province, and oil palm productivity in Surat Thani Province, as well as the factors affecting oil palm productivity in Surat Thani Province. Collected secondary data for the study from January 2016 to December 2020, a total of 60 months, and used multiple regression analysis.The results showed that four independent variables related to oil palm productivity in Surat Thani province were oil palm prices <img title="(X{_{1}})" src="{_{1}})" />, the average number of hours of sunshine <img title="(X{_{2}})" src="{_{2}})" />, average temperatures <img title="(X{_{3}})" src="{_{3}})" />, and relative humidity <img title="(X{_{4}})" src="{_{4}})" />. That is, the average number of hours of sunshine <img title="(X{_{2}})" src="{_{2}})" /> and average temperatures <img title="(X{_{3}})" src="{_{3}})" />were in a positive direction, affecting oil palm productivity in Surat Thani Province, which increased with statistical significance at the 0.05 level, The oil palm prices <img title="(X{_{1}})" src="{_{1}})" /> and relative humidity <img title="(X{_{4}})" src="{_{4}})" /> were in a negative direction, affecting oil palm productivity in Surat Thani Province, which decreased with statistical significance at the 0.05 level and has the following form of the multiple regression equation:<img title="\hat{Y} = 6159.536 - 30443.299X_{1} + 2590.994 X_{2}+ 19044.137 X_{3} - 1461.518 X_{4}" src="\hat{Y}&amp;space;=&amp;space;6159.536&amp;space;-&amp;space;30443.299X_{1}&amp;space;+&amp;space;2590.994&amp;space;X_{2}+&amp;space;19044.137&amp;space;X_{3}&amp;space;-&amp;space;1461.518&amp;space;X_{4}" /> </p> orawan suebsen Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10 2 176 185 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.203 Literature Study on Conditions of Sea Surface Temperature and Seawater Rise in Indonesia Detected by Remote Sensing <p>The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is an important parameter for climate dynamic issues either globally or regionally as well as for global warming issues. In some condition the parameter can cause melting glaciers that will influence the rise of the sea levels. The further effect will be the climate change with the weather phenomena such as storms, hurricanes and heavy rains. As the result, the changes of the planting seasons occur and all of these will harm human life on earth. If there is no prevention with the condition of the parameter it is predicted that by 2040 the sea levels will rise highly because of the melting polar ice caps that will cause the sink of the<br />islands. The SST has been detecting using remote sensing methods for 32 years in Indonesia. The trend has increased to reduce the damage of infrastructure and the activity disturbance of coastal communities. Indonesian country optimistically commits to achieve the target of net zero emission by 2060. The Indonesian government has stated nationally the climate target commitments determined for Indonesia and will strive to maintain the main target of reducing greenhouse gas emission into 41% by 2030.</p> Agnes Sri Mulyani Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10 2 186 194 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.390 Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Histochemical Staining Techniques for Steatosis Detection in Liver Tissue and Application in Forensic Autopsy: A Case Study <p>Oil Red O (ORO) stain is lipophilic for stain fat and lipid components, it is one of the chemical reagents which have the potential to be utilized for forensic medicine to identify asphyxia deaths from pulmonary emboli, that are frequently occurred following an accident or sudden death. Consequently, it can increase forensic pathologists' confidence and lower the cost of delivering ORO stains to other units. Therefore, the authors were interested in comparing the effectiveness of commercial ORO-C and homemade ORO-HM in steatosis samples. Tissue samples were collected and divided into two groups namely with fixative and without any preservative.<br />Assessment of the persistence efficiency of ORO-HM at different storage periods was performed by four experts with a blind testing method. The results were compared by assessing the efficiency of two histochemical stains using the SPSS software. The results showed that ORO-HM in both fresh and formalin-fixed tissues represented decent efficiency in fatty changed detection which was in line with the results from ORO-C. However, the ORO-HM data in formalin fixative tissues was clearer than fresh tissue (p &lt; 0.05). This study presents that the ORO-HM method expresses promising results, that is useful for the diagnosis of steatosis as same as ORC-C.<br />Furthermore, it should be performed in slides of no longer than 72 h storage time because the efficiency of the dye would deteriorate significantly. In conclusion, ORO-HM stain in this study provided compatible results with PRC-C and could be utilized in forensic medicine</p> Yasudama Chaimad Woratuch Witchuvanich Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 10 2 195 204 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.474 Synthesis and Characterization of TiN Thin Films by DC Reactive Magnetron Sputtering <p>In this work, the titanium nitride (TiN) thin films were prepared on Si-wafers by using the DC reactive magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target. The influence of N2 flow rates, in the range of 1.0-4.0 sccm, on the as-deposited TiN film’s structure was characterized by several techniques. (i) The crystal structures were studied by GI-XRD. (ii) The film’s thicknesses, microstructures, and surface morphologies were analyzed by FE-SEM. (iii) The elemental composition of films was measured by EDS. (iv) The hardness was measured by the nano-indentation. (v) The color was identified by a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The results showed that the as-<br />deposited films were polycrystalline of B1-NaCl structure. The lattice constants were ranging from 4.211-4.239 Å. The as-deposited films showed a nano crystal size in the range of 17.8-24.6 nm. The thickness decreases from 1254 nm to 790 nm with following in the N2 flow rates. The concentration of Ti and N depended on the N2 flow rates. The cross-sectional analysis showed that the films had a compact-columnar structure. The hardness increased from 4 to 19 GPa with increasing in the N2 flow rates. The close to the color of 24K gold thin films in the CIE L*a*b* system was obtained by deposition in optimal N2 flow rates.</p> Siriwat Alaksanasuwan Nirun Witit-anun Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 10 2 205 212 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.353 A Risk Prediction Model of Road Accidents During Long Holiday in Thailand Using Ensemble Learning with Decision Tree Approach <p>The rate of injury and death from traffic accidents during the New Year and Songkran Festival each year has high and are continuously on the increase. The researchers, therefore, has decided to study and develop a model for predicting the road accident risk during the holiday season with ensemble learning based on decision tree approach. The aim is to help reduce accidents and loss of life caused by road accidents. The dataset used in this research is traffic accidents resulting in injury and death data during the long holiday from 2008 to 2015 from hospitals across the country, accumulatively recorded by the National Institute for Emergency Medicine. This<br />research compared the efficiency of data classification to find the best ensemble model for predicting traffic accident risk. The methods studied included Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost), and Random Forest, and the decision tree techniques used in the experiment were J48, ID3, and CART. The results of experiment and comparisons of classification efficiency showed that the Random Forest algorithm with J48 decision tree was the most efficient model, providing an accuracy of up to 93.3%.</p> paranya palwisut Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 10 2 213 221 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.499 Influence of annealing and etching on physical and wetting properties of acrylic surface <p>The objective of this research aims to study the surface modification of acrylic for superhydrophobic applications. The acrylics were modified using annealing at 50, 75 and 100 °C for 1 h. To evaluate the effect of etching on the morphology of acrylic substrates, two different acids between tetrahydrofuran (THF) and chloroform with their concentration of 99.8 % v/v were used to etch for 1 min. Then, the annealed acrylics were etched by THF because chloroform has highly hazardous acid and low transparency after etching. The effects of annealing and wet chemical etching on morphology, optical properties and wettability can be characterized using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Vickers hardness tester, UV/Vis spectroscopy and water contact angle measurement. This result exhibits that the hardness of acrylic increases with the increase of annealing temperature. Furthermore, the wet chemical etching has direct affected to the wettability of acrylics due to the increasing of surface roughness.</p> wattikon sroila Nidchamon Jumrus Jongrak Jompaeng Arisara Panthawan Tewasin Kumpika Ekkapong Kantarak Pisith Singjai Wiradej Thongsuwan Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 10 2 222 226 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.546 The Glass Produced from Recycled Soda-Lime Glass Cullet by Slip Casting <p>Slip casting is a ceramic processing technique which can be used to produce complex-shape ceramic object. In the present work, slip casting was applied to produce the 70 mm × 10 mm × 15 mm green samples from recycled soda-lime glass. The slip with 60% solid loading was prepared from 100 g of recycled cullet, 1 g of sodium silicate as a binder, 50 ml of DI water, and 16.7 ml of deflocculant. The deflocculant for slip casting was 0.1 wt% sodium tripolyphosphate solution. &nbsp;After slip casting, the samples were dried at room temperature for 3 days. Then the samples were sintered at 680, 700, and 720 °C with the soaking time of 1 and 2 hrs with 5 °C/min heating rate. The results from statistical analysis showed that there was a high variation on flexural strength which should be from the high closed porosity and high pore-size variation of the samples. Therefore, our glass produced from slip casting is not suitable for load bearing applications. However, this technique still can be used to produce other art products such as Buddha amulets.&nbsp;</p> Parinya Chakartnarodom Ekdanai Deeprasertwong Pitcharat Ineure Nutthita Chuankrerkkul Edward Laitila Nuntaporn Kongkajun Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 10 2 227 232 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.553 XANES, XPS and Raman Studies of Hafnium Oxide Thin Films fabricated by RF Magnetron Sputtering at Different Power <p>Hafnium oxide layer was deposited on unheated silicon wafer and glass substrates at different power by using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The structural property was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, HfO<sub>2</sub> structure in monoclinic major phase especially at high RF power was found from the Raman spectra in vibrational modes. In addition, oxidations state of hafnium oxide thin films was gained by synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) using Hf L3-edge of XANES techniques and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well. The XANES and XPS results show that the oxidation state of HfO<sub>2</sub> films is unchanged at different powers. The thin film prepared at higher power tends to have lower of oxygen vacancy.</p> Ekachai Chongsereecharoen Yotin Kallayalert Wichai Kongsri Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 10 2 233 237 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.571 The System Recognizes the Digital Image of Pistol Shell Casings by Developing Algorithms Combined with Deep Learning <p>Gun-related violence in Thailand is in a high rate. Resume reports showed that most of them caused by gun-shooting.Thus, Firearms and bullets are important evidence in the judicial process to link the events and the perpetrators.Therefore, the aim of this study was to present the system recognizes the digital image of pistol shell casings by developing algorithms combined with deep learning. The objectives of this forensic study were to 1) analyze, design, and develop a Pistol Identification System (PIS) based on breech face marks of cartridge case digital images, and 2) achieve a guideline or an alternative method for facilitating an expert to investigate firearms linked to the offender. In this research the PIS that was designed with programming language applied to develop algorithms for identification of the breech face marks of cartridge case digital images. In addition to that, MATLAB’s tools were applied in the deep learning process to achieve the final PIS model. The steps of deep learning technique were composed of designing a training and repeat the experiments over multiple cycles (Epoch) for the purpose of confirming, test and adjust the proportions of the hidden layers until reaching the ratio of 80:10:10 and accomplishing a satisfied averaged accuracy rate. The PIS model was subsequently used for comparison and predict the image pair through database management technology. Materials used in this study were composed of 50,000 images of rear plates of .38 Cartridge case, Camera, Mobile Phone, Computer, MATLAB language and Microsoft Access software. The findings showed that the PIS developed is of satisfactory accuracy capable of accurately matching the pairs of images stored in the database and could also be traced back to the gun used at the scene and gun owners. The results of this study would apply as the alternative or guideline to PIS and even would help forensic practitioners to cross-checking and investigating firearms in relation to the offender.</p> Aree Jivorarak Kittikhun Meethongjan Narong Kunides Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-07-20 2023-07-20 10 2 238 248 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.515 Assessment of Fermented Rice Straw as Nutritive Substances for Bio-based Plant Pot <p>This research aims to develop bio- based nurseries or plant pots that contain soil nourishment from agricultural waste, namely rice straw. Tapioca starch glue as a binder was mixed with rice straw and then pressed by a hydraulic compression machine to form the sheet. To promote soil nourishment, the straw was fermented. The fermentations with and without enzyme assistance were compared as well as the fermentation time. The tensile strength of the specimens was assessed through a tensile test, revealing a surprising increase in strength with fermentation. The key distinction between the specimens with and without enzyme assistance was the time it took to reach the maximum value. Without the presence of enzyme, the specimens reached a maximum tensile strength of 0. 67 MPa after 7 days of fermentation. For fermentation with enzyme assistance, this value increased to 0. 81 MPa but required 14 days of fermentation to reach its maximum point. Not only the fermentation duration but also the inclusion of enzymes showed a slightly impact on water absorption and water swelling. Spectrophotometry was employed to analyze the value of phosphorus ( P) and potassium ( K) , while the amount of nitrogen ( N) was determined by the Kjeldahl method. As expected, soil nourishment can be promoted by fermentation and boosted by enzymes. The sheet from straw fermented with the enzyme at 21 days gives the<br />highest soil nourishment, i.e., 17.90%w/w for total K2O, 0.40%w/w for total P2O5, and 1.89%w/w for total N.</p> Chadaporn Phrmkhot Somwan Chumphongphan Sitthi Duangphet Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-08-04 2023-08-04 10 2 249 254 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.547 Analysis and Design of Building’s Structural Members (Slabs and Beams) using Microsoft Excel and AUTOCAD Software: A Case Study of MARCGSO’ Building <p>The frequent collapse of concrete structures (Buildings, Bridges and Culverts) these days in the global construction industries has led to claiming of many innocent lives. From the literature perspective, the observed major causes of this failure are the errors developed from the programmed structural software; the method used in running the software, its usage error during the analysis and design of structural members; and possibly, error committed by unskill personnel while using the structural software. Allowing the continuity of these errors in the construction industries will cause greater damages to lives and properties globally, thus; a more accurate and reliable design software has to be developed to eradicate errors occurrence in structural design. The results of this investigation proved that Microsoft Excel sheet is accurate for structural members’ analysis and design; good for accurate calculation in designing, it can be access quick; so reliable, and error free. Its application in construction industries will bring accuracy and stability to designed structures, and more lives will be saved. As a case study, the architectural plans of Maryland Catholic Grammar School, Ogbomoso (MARCGSO)’s principal lodge building was used as a prototype to show how efficient is Microsoft Excel in structural analysis. At MARCGSO, this has been tested and found reliable. During the investigation, the structural details of the designed concrete structural members were carried out using AUTOCAD software. Analysis and design of members were carried out from the basic principle of structural design using BS 8110 part 1:1999. The result shows that, Microsoft Excel and BS 8110 part 1:1999 code are the best design tools needed for analysis and design of structural members. It is very fast, accurate and error free. Also, the output of analysis carried out using Microsoft Excel are traceable, amendable and reliable, thus, its application in designing will prevent sudden structural failure. Likewise, it is very easy for young and structural engineers to operate, thus, its application can be done by: open a fresh Microsoft Excel sheet, get BS 8110 part 1:1999 code of structural design, prepare a general arrangement of architectural plan of structure to design, then follow the step by step of designing stated in this study. It required no application download or software purchase. In conclusion, the use of Microsoft Excel in structural analysis and designing will save many lives and prevent sudden collapse of structures resulting from wrong code or software error.</p> Kilani Abiodun Joseph Fapohunda Christopher Ajiboye Oladejo Oladipupo Seun Adetayo Oluwaseun Famodimu Babatunde Copyright (c) 2023 Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University 2023-08-08 2023-08-08 10 2 255 273 10.53848/ssstj.v10i2.389