Anthropogenic Impacts on Cave-roosting Bats: A Call for Conservation Policy Implementation in Bukidnon, Philippines


  • Kim-Lee Bustillo Domingo Department of Biology, Central Mindanao University, Musuan, Bukidnon 8710, Philippines
  • Dave Paladin Buenavista Department of Biology, Central Mindanao University, Musuan, Bukidnon 8710, Philippines


Threatened species, Chiroptera, Ecotourism, Conservation, Mindanao


Many caves in the Philippines are amongst the most popular natural ecotourism sites, even though most of them are poorly regulated and understudied. This study investigates the anthropogenic impacts of unsustainable ecotourism and exploitation on cave-roosting bats in Sumalsag Cave, Bukidnon, Mindanao Island, Philippines. The species richness of the cave-roosting bat fauna was determined using the standard mist-netting method and capture-mark and release technique. The conservation status was assessed based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Ecological evaluation and assessment of the cave’s speleological characteristics and ecological condition was carried out using the Philippines’ standard cave assessment protocol. After completing 15 net-nights field sampling with a capture effort of 180 net/hours, results revealed a total of six (6) species of cave-roosting bats which belongs to three (3) families. Two Philippine endemic species, Ptenochirus jagori and Ptenochirus minor were documented including Miniopterus schreibersii, a species classified under near threatened category. Evidence of human activities were considered for identifying the indirect and direct threats on the bat fauna. Destroyed speleothems and speleogens, excavations, modifications of the cave’s features as well as graffiti in the cave walls were recorded. This study recommends regulating eco-tourism activities, protecting the endemic and threatened species and promoting natural restoration of the cave by implementing the existing environmental laws.


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How to Cite

Domingo, K.-L. B. ., & Buenavista, D. P. . (2022). Anthropogenic Impacts on Cave-roosting Bats: A Call for Conservation Policy Implementation in Bukidnon, Philippines. Suan Sunandha Science and Technology Journal, 5(1), 28–34. Retrieved from



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