Bacterial Contamination of Intensive Care Units at a Federal Medical Centre in Abia State, Nigeria
Keywords:Bacterial contamination, Intensive care unit, Antibiotic sensitivity pattern
Bacterial contamination in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is of public health concern because it is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and a breeding ground for multi drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. This study evaluated the bacterial contamination in ICU in Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Umuahia. The units sampled were adult ICU, and Newborn special care unit. Samples were processed in the microbiology laboratory by standard methods. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern was done by disc diffusion method. Identification of bacteria was done by Gram stain, Motility and biochemical methods. A total of 166 samples from fomites and air were collected, of which 27 (16.3%) yeided bacterial growth. Thirteen (15.9%) were detected from fomites in adult ICU, and 8 (11.1%) were detected from fomites in newborn special care. Six (50%) were detected from air in both units. The common bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, 8 (29.6%), Escherichia coli, 6 (22.2%), Coagulase negative Staphylococci, 6 (22.2%), Pseudomonas spp., 1 (3.7%), was the least common bacterial isolate. Antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates was carried out using disc diffusion method. Gram negative bacterial isolates were more sensitive to Ofloxacin, Peflacine, Ciprofloxacin, and Streptomycin. Gram positive bacterial isolates were more sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Rifampicin, Erythromycin, Levofloxacin. However, Coagulase negative Staphylococci was highly resistant to the drugs. This study revealed the presence of bacterial pathogens on fomites in the ICU.
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